The Middle Kingdom began when Mentuhotep II reunited Upper and Lower Egypt, launching Egypt's Classical Age or Period of Reunification.
Under the rule of Mentuhotep II, Thebes became the capital of Egypt. From that point forward, the city of Thebes would remain a major religious and political center throughout much of Ancient Egyptian history.
The Middle Kingdom was a time of achievements for ancient Egyptians. Mentuhotep II rebuilt the central government and expanded the borders of Egypt.
Art took on new styles and techniques, like the block style, where art was produced from large blocks of stone. Irrigation projects increased harvests which made the life of its people prosperous.
Writing and literature developed as well. For the first time in Ancient Egyptian history, writing was used for entertainment including writing stories and recording religious philosophy.
The outstanding monument of this dynasty was Mentuhotep’s mortuary complex. The masterful design, representing a perfect union of architecture and landscape unique for its time, is just one of the many legacies left to us by the ancient Egyptians.