The year is 1187, and a series of holy wars known as The Crusades has taken place with two wars known as the First and Second Crusades having already been fought. But what exactly are The Crusades, you may ask? Well, The Crusades were a series of wars originally started by Pope Urban II in order to regain control of Jerusalem from the Muslims, and were fought in the Middle Ages by Western Europeans in the name of the Christian God. There were around 9 Crusades total each with slightly different goals, but the most famous Crusades were the First, Second, and Third Crusades.
This is Jerusalem. It is currently being held by the Muslims after their most recent victory over the European Christians who tried twice to regain Jerusalem, but failed. The first attempt was during the Second Crusade, and the second attempt was early in the Third Crusade.
However, the King of England, Richard, does not like the Muslim control of Jerusalem, so in 1191, he decides to attack them one more time.
This is King Richard.
This is Saladin, the Muslim leader during this time.
And after some intense fighting, Richard and his forces win the battle!
After the battle, Richard reestablished Christian control of some of region around Jerusalem, and he and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem, though this kingdom did not include the actual city of Jerusalem. This peace treaty officially ended the Third Crusade.
From the European perspective, the Third Crusade was successful because King Richard somewhat accomplished the European goal of regaining control of Jerusalem. Before and after the Third Crusade, there were also the Second and Fourth Crusades, respectively. From the European perspective, the Second Crusade was not successful because the goal of regaining Jerusalem was not met and the European armies were massively defeated. However, the Fourth Crusade was, from the European perspective, successful because the European goal of felling Constantinople was accomplished.