who is considered the father of geology, has observed the shape of land by different forces through farming. He was the one who used the concept of uniformitarianism about the similarities of past and present geological forces like volcanic eruptions and erosion which determine the history of earth through rocks.
Alexander von Humboldt
a geographer, who observed nature and recognized the patterns revealing basic processes, like the transfer of heat in ocean currents and the effect of temperature on plants and their growth.
who is one of the founders of geochemistry, made a theory about the development of earth in three phases. First phase is geosphere, second is biosphere and third is noosphere. He popularized noosphere which is the sphere of human consciousness.