In 440 BCE Democritus proposed that everything in the world was made up of tiny particles surrounded by empty space. He also said that they vary is size and shape depending on the substance they composed.
everything in the world is made up of tiny particles called atomos
In 1808 a quaker teacher john dalton tried to prove that atoms where real because Democritus's theory was purely theoretical. Dalton showed that all common substances always broke down into the same elements in the same proportions. he then concluded that the various compounds were made of combinations of atoms in different elements.
there are different types of atoms that make different substances
In 1897 J.J.Thompson discovered the electron. He showed atoms as uniformly packed spheres of positive matter filled with negatively charged electrons. He won a nobel prize for discovering electrons. But his model of an atom didn't stick around for long because he had some pretty smart students.
atoms are made of electrons!
One of Thompsons students named Ernest Rutherford. He was called the father of the nuclear age. while studying the affects of X-rays on nuclear gases. He decided to investigate atoms close up. shooting small positively charged particles at sheets of metal. apperntly the atoms positive charge isn't strong enough for the energy particles bounce of. Most of the particles bounced off some bounced back off. suggesting that the gold fill was like a thick tennis request. He concluded that atome are mostly made of empty space with just a few electrons. while most of the mass was in the centre which was called the nucleus.
i found out what atoms truly are!
Another one of Thompsons students called Niels Bohr. judging on previous work done by Max Planck and Albert Einstien he sound out that electrons orbited the nucleusat fixed energies and distances able to jump between levels but cant go in between. bohr made a planetary model but it soon encountered some problems. The problem was that electrons don't move in confined spaces they move like waves.
electrons orbit the nucleus just like how our planets orbit the sun!
James Chadwick worked with earnest Rutherford for lots of his experiments but on day he was at the lab by himself and discovered that the particles in the nucleus are made with no electrical charge so he called them neutrons.