Development of a Limited Monarchy in England
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In 1215, the barons forced the king to sign the Magna Carta, guaranteeing them specific rights. It made the king have new laws and taxes, and allow a person to have a jury trial.
The first parliament met in 1295. A parliament is a law-making group made up of clergy, knights, and townspeople.
The First Parliament
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Elizabeth I ruled from 1558-1603. She built up England's navy to protect her country. She also increased trade and made England wealthy because she spoke several languages, knowing how to communicate with foreign rulers.
The English Civil War began in 1642, and ended in 1653 with King Charles captured and beheaded. Parliament then stopped the monarchy and England became a republic.
Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans, landowners, and merchants vs. the Cavaliers
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The Glorious Revolution took place in 1688. Parliament overthrew James the second and asked his daughter, Mary, and her husband to take charge. This period was called the Restoration.
The English Bill of Rights was created in 1689 by the Parliament. It ensured Parliament's superiority over the monarchy. It stated that the king must work with Parliament, that the House of Commons has financial control, and affirmed habeas corpus; no one could be held in jail without being charged of a crime.
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