"In our courts, when it's a white man's word against a black man's word, the white always wins." (Lee, Chapter 16, 166)
To Kill a Mockingbird Example
"The witnesses for the state... have presented themselves to you gentlemen, to this court, in the cynical confidence that their testimony would not be doubted, confident that you gentlemen would go along with them on the assumption- the evil assumption- that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are basically immoral beings... an assumption one associates with minds of the caliber." (Lee, Chapter 20, 208)
7. To Kill a Mockingbird was written by Harper Lee in the 1960s, however the novel was set in the 1930s in Maycomb, Alabama. The novel is told in a girl named Scout Finch's perspective. She has an older brother named Jem Finch and her father Atticus Finch. Atticus is a lawyer who is defending a man named Tom Robinson, an African-American man who was accused of raping a white women name Mayella Ewell.
Institutional racism in Canadian context: Indian Act
8. Lee included race and racism in her novel when Atticus explains to Jem the issues between the African American community and the whites that happens in court. He informed Jem that no matter what the circumstances may be, the African Americans will always lose when a white individual is against it. This proves that in Maycomb, the African Americans are a minority group and are not seen are equal or important; therefore, although Tom may have evidence of his innocence, in court he will always be guilty.
Institutional racism in Canadian context: Bill C-31
I have more power than you!
9. Lee demonstrated stereotypes in race in her book when she describes how Atticus expresses the stereotypes that Maycomb has on the African American group, specifically to the males as this group was defined to be ALL immoral and untrusted. This displays the judgement that the white population in Maycomb had on this racial group based on the simple and essential, yet exaggerated characteristics that they heard about this race as a whole rather than judging individual people.
Institutional racism in Canadian context: Violence
Sir, I need your help!
10. The Indian Act was created in the year 1875. It is a direct institutional discrimination, a policy that intends to discriminate. This act became a problem specifically to women. Indigenous women lost their rights to live on reserves, be buried on the reserve, run for position of band chief, vote for band related elections, and even lost their right to be called "Indian". To gain this title, an indigenous women had to be a direct descendant of their father or married to an Indian man.
I'm Indian. I should be able to be buried here.
11. The Bill C-31 was established in 1985 to amend the Indian Act. Through this, Indigenous women and children were reinstated under the Indian registry; however, women were still content with this. Women believed that this order was sexist and experienced new discrimination in their communities. Males were still more dominant. They focused on treaty rights and neglected the women's rights such as child welfare and housing and health care.
12. Indigenous women are serious target for violence due to racial and cultural stigmas. When an Indigenous woman reports domestic violence or life threatening violence to police, seeking for help, police often disregard their report. Indigenous women are more likely to go to jail than other women of another ethnicity in Canada.