Direct: narration states the trait of the character.
Speech: what the character says and how they say it reveals their character.
Thoughts: The character’s thoughts and emotions reveal their personality.
“A trace of anger was in the general’s black eyes, but it was there for but a second;”(Page 9) This shows that General Zaroff, when getting angry, is able to conceal it and calm down very quickly.
Effect on others: How other characters react to and how they think of the character reveals the character’s personality
“You see, I read all books on hunting published in English, French, and Russian. I have but one passion in my life, Mr. Rainsford, and it is the hunt.” (Page 6) The General reveals this to Rainsford, showing how he has a lot of time, very intelligent to know three languages, and a lot of passion for hunting.
Actions: The character’s actions/actual movements and behaviors reveal their personality
“One was the thought that it would be difficult to replace Ivan; the other was that his quarry had escaped him;” (Page 15) General Zaroff had been thinking of not the consequences of Rainsford escaping the island and possibly revealing what is going on on that island. Instead worrying how he lost his first game, and how he know needs a new torturer.
Looks: The character’s physical appearance reveals ideas about their personality.
“But there was one small trait of the general’s that made Rainsford uncomfortable. Whenever he looked up from his plate he found the general studying him, appraising him narrowly.” (Page 5) This reveals that General Zaroff is a very attentive to details, and an observant person.
“The general’s eyes had left the ground and were travelling inch by inch up the tree...a smile spread over his brown face...walked carelessly away.” (Page 13) This shows that the General is having a fun time with the game, and allows Rainsford to continue, even though he could have killed him then and there.
“He was a tall man past middle age, for his hair was a vivid white; but his thick eyebrows and pointed military mustache were as black as the night from which Rainsford had come. His eyes, too, were black and very bright. He had high cheekbones, a sharpcut nose, a spare, dark face…” (Page 5) General Zaroff's physical appearance reveals that he is a very well kept man, and shows that he is a bit odd.