Proteins are made of amino acid chains. They control all the processes that occur in the body.They make you what you are right now. And they are created in a very specific way.
Well, what makes them?
The first step is to replicate DNA into a single-stranded substance called mRNA. It is very similar to DNA, but it can leave the nucleus.
Initiation is the first stage of transcription and is where the TATA Box which is the core promoter starts the synthesis. Then, Elongation occurs where the RNA polymerase produces RNA that is coding or non coding.
Next, the final step of transcription occurs, modification. This is where the mRNA leaves the nucleus and heads for the ribosome in the cytoplasm. Splicing then occurs during which the non coding introns are cut out and only the coding exons remain.
While in transport, the mRNA is processed. Lots of introns are broken off and the ends are fitted with caps.
Like Transcription, translation has 3 steps. Initiation, elongation, and termination. In initiation, the ribosome is separated into two subunits that read the mRNA.
Translation then occurs in the ribosome. tRNA workers read all the mRNA code and put together parts called amino acids to create the final protein.
Elongation is when the ribosome travels down the mRNA, reading codons and bringing in the proper aminoacyl tRNA’s to translate the message out to proteins. And termination is just when the ribosome reaches a stop codon and stops. After all of this, you have a new, duplicate protein made.