The Articles placed most power in the hands of state governments. Government under the Articles lacked an executive or a judicial branch. The central government under the Articles of Confederation, composed of delegates chosen by state governments. Each state had one vote in the Congress, regardless of its population.
The founders structred the government this way because they didn't want the government to be too strong.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution
One state on the coast might refuse to trade with England and close its ports to English ships, for example, and the state next to it would see an economic opportunity and open its ports and trade with England, thus profiting at the expense of the neighboring state.
A weakness of the AoC is that it had no congress to regulate trade.
One weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that Congress did not have the power to tax its citizens directly; instead, it could only request money from the states. This created financial problems because states often did not pay what was requested of them by the federal government.
Another weakness of the AoC is that congress could not tax.
The Northwest Ordinance established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to the original thirteen states.
The plan called for the Northwest Territory to be divided into three to five territories; then it described a three-step process each territory could follow to become a state. As the first step toward statehood, each territory had to appoint a governor, a secretary, and three judges.
Considered one of the most important legislative acts of the Confederation Congress, the Northwest Ordinance also protected civil liberties and outlawed slavery in the new territories. The status of slavery was very bad which is why slavery was outlawed.
Under the ordinance, slavery was forever outlawed from the lands of the Northwest Territory, freedom of religion and other civil liberties were guaranteed.
Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts and Worcester in response to a debt crisis among the citizenry and in opposition to the state government's increased efforts to collect taxes both on individuals and their trades
the national government was unable to gather a combined military force among the states to help put down the rebellion, making clear a serious weakness in the structure of the Articles.