The play takes place in Elsinore Castle in Denmark. Bernardo and Marcellus believe they saw a ghost. Hamlet later sees the ghost which he figures out it is his father. He also figures out that his father was poisoned by Claudius, who just recently married Gertrude and has took over the throne.
After midnight, for two nights running, these two guards, Marcellus and Bernardo, saw a figure that looked very much like your father, in full armor from head to toe (1.2.11)
Hamlet feels that he has to seek revenge for the death of his father, however, he struggles with his indecisiveness over what to do. To make matters worst, Claudius is now the current King and he is well protected.
Yes, it is. But though I was born here and should consider that tradition part of my own heritage, I think it would be better to ignore it than practice it. Other countries criticize us for our loud partying. They call us drunks and insult our noble titles..A tiny spot of evil casts doubt on their good qualities and ruins their reputations. (1.4.18)
Claudius decides to hire Rosencrantz & Guildenstern to spy on Hamlet, along with Polonius. Hamlet tries to figure out if Claudius really killed his father. To do so, Hamlet plans out a play in which actors mimic a king being poisoned in the ear, and if Claudius reacts then it will prove him guilty that he killed the King.
I’ll have these actors perform something like my father’s murder in front of my uncle. I’ll watch my uncle. I’ll probe his conscience and see if he flinches. If he becomes pale, I know what to do… I need better evidence than the ghost to work with. The play’s the thing to uncover the conscience of the king. (2.2.47-48)
After the play, Claudius decides to pray for forgiveness due to killing the king. Hamlet debates whether to kill Claudius while he is praying, and if he does, then Claudius will go to heaven. After that, Hamlet stabs Polonius through a curtain and later realizes his violent actions in which causes himself to have a conflict with the King.
What’s this, a rat? I’ll bet a buck he’s a dead rat now. (3.4.70)
After Hamlet kills Polonius, he is sent to England to be executed. While that goes on, Hamlet tells Gertrude how disappointed he is at her for marrying Claudius, and he even later escapes from England to return to Denmark. Later on, Ophelia drowns herself, and Laertes challenges Hamlet to a fencing match after he blames Hamlet for the death of Polonius (father) and Ophelia (Sister).
you can easily choose one with a sharpened point and in one thrust avenge the death of your father. (4.7.94)
During the fencing match, Laertes poisoned the tip of his sword and Claudius poisons a cup in order to try and kill Hamlet. Laertes stabs Hamlet, and Hamlet stabs Laertes while grappling. Later on Gertrude, Claudius, Laertes, and Hamlet all die due to the poison. Horatio is the only one remaining in the play and Fortinbras, Prince of Norway, takes over the throne after the family tragedy..
These corpses suggest mayhem. Oh, proud Death, what banquet are you preparing that you’ve needed to knock off so many princes at one stroke? (5.2.118)