The blue arrows represent the cold air and the red arrows represent the hot air. During the day the land is hotter than the ocean and at night the ocean is hotter than the land. The reason for that is that during the day the land absorbs more solar energy .
Not many people know this but when we pollute the air then we are slowly breaking away the ozone layer which is located in the mesosphere. The ozone layer protects us from harmful UV rays.
The polar easterlies are located at 60 degrees latitude. It is in both southern and northern hemisphere. The wind moves away from the poles.
Seasons are a short period of time in a year that the climate changes. The reason being is because the different amounts of solar radiation in one area. Seasons change because of the tilt of the earth.
Climate is average weather conditions over an amount of time. For example, if it was in the 60's and rainy over a period of time then it would be the average depending on how long it rained and stayed in the 60's.