Charles I was the son of James I. They both believed in Divine Right of Kings. Parliament was trying to limit the power of the king. Charles I was the one to sign it and he later ignored it.
The Civil War started in 1642 and the sides were Cavaliers vs Royalists, and supporters of parliament (Roundheads)
Oliver Cromwell Later beheaded King Charles( first monarch to be beheaded in public). Cromwell eventually sets up military dictatorship and ruled until is death in 1658.
Bill of Rights
In 1660 Charles II son of Charles I had been made King. NO Divine right of Kings and did not threaten Parliaments Authority. The James II was made King in 1685 ( Charles' brother). James II was openly catholic and he had a son and parliament was afraid of his son.
A group of English nobles encouraged William of Orange ( husband of James II daughter Mary). to invade and take over. James II fled to France when his army all left. William of Orange won with almost no bloodshed. 1689 William and Mary accept offer to Throne.
The Bill of Rights laid a foundation for constitutional monarchy. The monarchy and Parliament ruled together and destroyed theory of Divine Right of Kings.