World War I, a war that caused more destruction than any other war in history. When it ended, up to 20 million soldiers and 45 million civilians were dead. This horrific toll included 6 million Jews killed in concentration camps during the Holocaust, and hundreds of thousands killed by the Allied bombing of Japan and the two atomic bombs that were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, also burdened Germany with costly reparations that, especially after the stock market crash of 1929, led to growing unemployment and in ation that made German currency nearly worthless.
The Treaty of Versailles
Pearl Harbor is a U.S. naval base near Honolulu, Hawaii, and was the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese forces on December 7, 1941. Just before 8 a.m. on that Sunday morning, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes descended on the base, where they managed to destroy or damage nearly 20 American naval vessel.
Japan had launched a military takeover of Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. The Japanese had waged war for years in an attempt to achieve their objective of dominating China.