first we start with a new moon where it appears as though there is no moon in the sky.
on one side we have the waxing crescent stage 2 and on the other side we have the first quarter moon
The moon takes about 29 days to go all the way through its phases. the phases are caused by the reflection of the sun. one side of the moon is all we ever see and depending on our rotation and the sun to moon relationship is how much of the moon we see. different planets have different amounts of moons with different names and different sizes like Jupiter has 79 moons and Saturn has 82 while Mars has 2, of the smallest moons, but Mercury and Venus have 0 moons.
on the one side we have the gibbous and on the other side we have the full moon
here we the waning gibbous on one side and the 3/4 moon on the other side
here we have the crescent moon and on the other side the new moon again ending and beginning our cycle