Little Albert Study
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Little Albert (Watson and Rayner 1920)They wanted to create a phobia of rats in Albert which he initially had no fear of.
They showed Albert the rat and then accompanied it with a loud bang which would startle him. The noise (unconditioned stimulus) created fear which was an unconditioned response.
The rat which previously elicited no response (natural stimulus) and the noise (unconditioned stimulus) were paired so the NS became associated with the UCS to make him fear the rat.
The rat is now a conditioned stimulus which produces a conditioned response (fear) even when the sound isn't produced.
The conditioning was then generalised to similar objects, such as a rabbit as it was furry too.
In the end, they had succeeded in creating a phobia in Albert.