The Ottoman Empire was created by Osman I. They took over territories all over South Western Asia, one by one. It was inspired and upheld by Muslims and Muslim institutions.
It stretched over the countries Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and much of the coastal strip of North Africa.
One of the reasons the Ottoman Empire stayed so successful was the Sultan was considered the "Protector of Islam." The citizens of the Ottoman Empire were Monotheistic. They worshiped Allah, and their holy book was the Quran.
The Ottoman Empire was on the losing side of World War I, and fell completely apart. Another factor of the Ottoman Empire falling apart was their lack of technology.
Britain and France took over the Middle East. They created National Boundaries based on their own oil interests, not the interests and cultures of the citizens. This is also known as partitioning.
Many years after Britain and France lost control of the countries, these borders still cause conflict and civil war between countries.