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  • Oxygen
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway done by animals and humans that produce ATP, by consuming oxygen and organic fuel. The oxygen then powers the mighty mitochondrion.
  • Glucose is the simple sugars which are an important energy source for living organisms, it is taken from the food we eat.
  • Glucose has to be broken down in order to form pyruvate, this happens because of glycolysis which, occurs in the cytosol. There is a total of 10 steps!
  • In the first step, when glucose enters the cell and phosphorylated by an enzyme, hexokinase it uses one molecule of ATP. In step two, glucose- 6 phosphates are rearranged to convert it into fructose-6-phosphate. In the 3rd step, Phosphofructokinase transfers a phosphate group from ATP to the sugar, which uses another ATP molecule.
  • In step 4 the sugar molecule is split into two different 3-carbon sugars: glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. In step 5 isomerase catalyzes the reversible conversion between the two three-carbon sugars
  • In the second half of glycolysis, G3P is oxidized by transfer of electrons and H+ to NAD+, forming NADH. Since this reaction is very exergonic, the enzyme uses the released energy to attach a phosphate group to the oxidized substrate. ATP is finally being produced, because of the previous step is transferred to ADP. 
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