William of Normandy was a man who invaded England through France, and defeated the anglo-saxons. He won the Battle of Hastings, and by doing this, william the conqueror ended a system called Feudalism, in which extreme power is held by a few lords, and the currency is loyalty.
In this new age, several new ideas were introduced by Henry II. This king was set upon pushing further the power of the monarchy. He also introduced Common Law, which was a basic set of laws and rights to protect the people. In addition to this, he came up with Jury trial, which is a trial including witnesses, common people, and a fair judge.
rights- for those accused!
Thus began the wave of new rights for the people; Magna carta, limiting power of King John. Due process, meaning everyone has the right to a fair trial. Power of the purse, where the nobility can control the actions of a monarch aby limiting money. and lastly, the creation of Parliament, a body of the individuals the Monarch must consult for important decisions.
these laws are chaining me down!
In come the Tudors including King James I, the royal family around the time that Religion was controversial. The christians called the corruption of the church to attention, made the Petition of Right, and sparked the start of the protestant reformation. When the Tudor queen died and left the Stuart noble family in charge, they used this religious shift to their advantage.
They convinced the public of Divine Right - power granted directly to the king by god.
what times of conntroversy, for a commoner like me!
The english civil war pitted royalists against anti-royalists- they all feared for their rights as common people. The common had to choose between Oliver Cromwell, a raging roundhead, and Lord Protector - a man who dissolved Parliament to take absolute power.
Those that were royalists often feared the change that would occur if they went against their supposed god-given ruler. The most prevalent form of society at this time was Puritan - gladly led by James II.
Eventually, puritanism is put to an end. The ultimate, divine power that was given to King James II was stripped entirely when his son in law took the throne, upon the request of the newly reunited parliament. William, which was his name, developed and encouraged a new form of Government, called constitutional Monarchy.
This system consisted of limiting power for the king and having him consult parliament often, and the English bill of Rights. This granted freedom of Speach and the right to a fair trial.