when Solomon died people debated on who should be king. Israel split into two kingdoms known as Israel and Judah. the kingdoms lasted for a couple of centuries but both kingdoms were later conquered because the Assyrians defeated Israel.
The Chaldeans took over Jerusalem and destroyed Solomons temple. They marched to Babylon to work as slaves. the jews called the enslavement Babylonian captivity . Persians conquered the Chaldeans and then allowed the jews to return to home. scholars call the dispersal of the jews outside of Israel the Disporsa.
The most rebellious of the jews were named the Zealots. They didn't think that jews should answer to anyone but god. the Zealots refused to listen to the romans and told everyone to rise against the Romans. As tension built between the jews and Romans the jews revolted and the Zealots fought fiercely but the jews failed. the revolt lasted for four years and Jerusalem was in terrible condition.
when the capture of the Masada occurred the jewish revolt was over. After the Temple was damaged the jews surrendered . however some refused to give up there fight.a small group of zealots locked themselves in a mountain fortress called Masada . the Masada was very hard to defeat.
After the Masada , jews chose no not leave Jerusalem when romans conquered it. 60 years after the take over of Masada the jews began another revolt. but the romans still defeated the jews Romans later banned jews from Jerusalem and any jews caught near the city would be killed.
when the jews couldn't live in Jerusalem judaism changed. when they had no temples that made it very hard for them to worship. leaders called rabbis took on a greater role in guiding jews in their religious lives. they were responsible for interpreting the torah. over mint years jews moved out of the metertiranian sea and to other parts of the world.