Romulus and Remus were brothers who were found and raised by wolves. Soon they were found by a shepherd who took them in and raised them to be helpful and respectful men. Romulus and Remus wanted to build a city and fought over the name. That resulted in a fight where Romulus kills Remus, and he names the city Rome.
After the last Etruscan king was removed in 509 B.C., the Roman Republic was formed, consisted of three main groups. The assembly was made of plebeians or plebs which were the common people of Rome. The Senate was made up of wealthier Romans called patricians and was the most powerful body in the Roman republic. The Senate elected two people to be consuls who each had a one-year term to administer the government and army.
The Early Roman Empire
By the beginning of the 4th century B.C., Rome formed the Latin League and conquered Italy over the Etruscans. Soon, Rome became an Empire just as the Athens's Delian League had. then Rome fought against Carthage, its chief rival, in a series of three wars known as the Punic wars which lasted between 264 and 146 B.C. This had the result of the Roman victory.
Caesar Augustus and the Pax Romana
Julius Ceasar was a Roman aristocrat who was popular among the poor. He declared himself emperor of Rome and Dictator of Rome and ruled from 49 to 44 B.C. He once disobeyed the Senate when they ordered him not to cross the Rubicon River, and he denied a gift given to him from the Senate. the Senat became angry with Ceasar and assassinated him on March 15, 44 B.C.
When Ceasar died, Octavian, his adopted son, and Antony, his closest friend split dictatorship over Rome with Octavian ruling the west and Antony ruling the east. Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen and started giving Roman land to her. Octavian saw this and started fighting against Antony. Soon Antony and Cleopatra fled off the coast of Greece committing suicide near Actium in 31 B.C.
The Pax Romana was remembered as two hundred years of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire from 30 B.C. to 180 A.D. It was started under the rule of Caesar Augustus. During this time of peace, he had the census in which made Mary and Joseph come back to Bethlehem where Jesus was born.