In 1776, Thomas Jefferson and 55 other Patriots signed the Declaration of Independence in which to proclaim their separation from their mother country (Great Britain) if the list of grievances wasn't agreed upon.
After the Revolutionary War, the Patriots hastily created a new form of government decidedly called the Articles of Confederation. Consequently, it failed giving rise to Shay’s Rebellion because the circulation of money drove up taxes.
To solve this problem delegates from each state were chosen to attend the Constitutional Convention. It was here that they voted on representation in government by debating the Virginia Plan versus the New Jersey Plan and whether slaves counted as part of the population.
Because the New Jersey plan catered to an equal representation to benefit small states while the Virginia plan catered to representation by population for larger states, they had to compromise on the matter. The Great Compromise was eventually formed. It consisted of a bicameral Congress with a House of Representatives that appeased larger states and a Senate that appeased smaller states. The ⅗ Compromise was also made to count slaves as part of the population by a lesser value of ⅗ a person.
In addition to the compromises established at the Constitutional Convention, they limited the power of the Central Government through Separation of Powers that reaffirmed the states powers. Checks and Balances was also made to limit the powers of the branches including, the Legislative Branch (makes laws), the Judicial branch (interprets laws) and the Executive Branch (enforces laws).
With the Constitution written, the document was sent out to be ratified by the other states. People called Federalists believed the Constitution was perfect as it was, but AntiFederalists believed it didn’t cover individual rights and asked for a Bill of Rights to be added. After some debate, the adjustment was made and the Constitution was finally ratified.