Years ago patriarchs were male leaders who were responsible for their tribal group's survival. A patriarch is like a father figure for their tribe. Patriarch's have the final say in all decisions. The three patriarch's were Abraham, Isac, and Jacob.
It took the Israelites 40 years of wandering in the desert to reach the promised land. Moses went to the mountain to talk to God for 40 days at the mountain.Unfortunately Moses didn't get to see the promised land because he died just before they crossed the Jordan river. After Moses died a leader named Joshua took over.
The Israelites had a line of many kings that ruled them eventually poor leadership and disagreement lead to the separation of the promised land into two, The north side of the promised land was known as Israel and the southern part Judah.
About 300 years before the time of Jesus one man seemed to rule the world. His name was Alexander the great even though he was only 30 years old Alexander ruled the world by that age.After Alexander died his empire was divided between his generals.Almost 300 years later Palestine was divided between two generals. The Greek Egyptian control ended in 198B.C.E .
After the Jews defeated the Greeks for their independence and rebuilt their temple they also had to rule themselves so they created three political parties their names were The sadduces, The essences, and The Pharises. After nearly a hundred years of independence the Romans took over.