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  • Cause 
  • The Battle of Marathon 
  •         The Battle of Theremoplyae 
  • King Darius sent a messenger to ask for a present of Greek earth and water. The Greeks refused to hand over the tribute. Instead they threw the messenger into pits and wells. 
  • The Battle of Salamis 
  • In 490 B.C.E King Darius was furious he sent a large army by foot A  general named Miltiades convinced the other Greek  commanders to fight the Persians at Marathon. The Greeks had   won a stunning victory. But their fight with the Persians was only beginning. 
  • The Battle of Plataea 
  •  King Xerxes, organized another attack on Greece.  Xerxes put together a huge army of more than 180,000 soldiers. In 480 B.C.E., Xerxes marched west from the Hellespont and then south. Leonidas knew that he could only delay  the Persians.  To keep his army from being destroyed, he ordered most of  his troops to escape. With a much smaller army, including 300 Spartans,  he prepared to fight. 
  •                         Effect
  • In 480 B.C.E  When news of the slaughter at Thermopylae reache  Athens, its citizens panicked. Themistocles had to get the Persian ships into a channel near a place called Salamis.  So he set a trap. Themistocles sent a messenger slave to Xerxes saying Thermopylae to change sides and join Persians If Xerxes attacked now, it said, half the Greek sailors would surrender. Xerxes fell for the trick. 
  • After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes fled with some of his soldiers. Xerxes left the rest of his army in Greece with orders to attack again in the spring. The decisive battle took place outside the town of Plataea in 479  B.C.E. Led by  the   Spartans,  a   force   of   80,000  Greek   troops destroyed  the   Persian  army.  The   threat   from   the   Persian  Empire was   finally   over. 
  • This   important   victory   preserved  the   Greeks'  independence and  kept   Persia   from   conquering  all   of   Europe.  The   Greeks   paid   a high  price   for   their   victory.   Thousands   of   Greeks   were   dead,  and the   city  of   Athens   was   in   ruins.  But   the   Athenians   would  soon rebuild  their   city  and  raise   it   to  even  greater   glory. 
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