Before the industrial revolution,food was produced locally,agriculture could provide for but a few large commercial towns.
In the 18th century,Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production.
As factories were being built, businesses were in need of workers. With a long line of people willing to work, employers could set wages as low as they wanted because people were willing to do work as long as they got paid.
James Watt invented the steam engine, it began to be used in many industrial settings, not just in mining, where the first engines had been used to pump water from deep workings.
Most people lived in slums because the population was overcrowded and they had terrible living conditions.
Everyone lived in terrible conditions and so close to one another,diseases spread rapidly and lack of medicine and medical care resulted in many deaths.