Enrico Fermi was born on September 29th, 1901 in Italy.
Fast forward to his adult years and Fermi was a very successful nuclear scientist. His early research was in general relativity and quantum mechanics.
He discovered that nuclear transformation could occur in nearly every element.
Fermi experimented with splitting atoms. One of the atoms he split was Uranium which led him to discover that you could slow down neutrons. This lead to nuclear fission and producing new elements on the periodic table.
He was one of the main people working on the Manhattan Project after moving to America in 1938. In 1938 Fermi also won a Nobel Prize for radioactivity.
In America he discovered that when uranium neutrons were transmitted into fissioning uranium, they would split into atoms that caused a chain reaction that lead to a release of an immense amount of energy.