Hello scientists! My name is Gregor Mendel and I am the father of genetics. I studied genetics by doing controlled breeding experiments with pea plants.
I controlled which plants pollinated other plants to observe how a trait was inherited. Pollination occurs when pollen lands on the pistil of a flower.
I cross-pollinated and was able to select which plants pollinated other plants. I was able to predict which crossed would produce which traits. I crossed true-breeding plants with purple flowers and true-breeding plants with white flowers-all the offspring had purple.
Hybrid plants means they came from true-breeding parent plants with different forms of the same trait. The trait that had disappeared in the first generation always reappeared in the second generation.
I concluded that two genetic factors control each inherited trait. I think that when organisms reproduce, each reproductive cell-sperm or egg- contributes one factor for each trait.
I hypothesized that the hybrid offspring had one genetic factor for purple flowers and one for white flowers. There are two types of traits. One is the dominant trait. This is a genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor. The other is a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor and is called a recessive trait.