Peter I was the first Tsar of Russia to sponsor education on secular lines. Various secular schools were opened which admitted children of soldiers, officials and churchmen.
In 1722, Peter the Great introduced the system of Table of Ranks, The establishment of the Table of Ranks was a direct blow to the power of the existing hereditary nobility, or Boyars. Previously, high-ranking state positions were hereditary. However with Table of Ranks anyone, including a commoner, could work their way up the bureaucratic hierarchy with sufficient hard work and skill.
Peter I considered that it was necessary for Russia to be a naval power in order to strengthen its position. However, Russia had no access to the Black Sea, the Caspian, or the Baltic. Peter’s successful 1695–96 Azov campaigns against the Ottoman Empire allowed him to gain access to the Azov Sea and found Taganrog, the first military base of the Russian Navy.
He founded St. Petersburg as a major russian port city in the west. Before this, the city was a swamp under the swedish realm. With the founding of St. Petersburg, Russia was now a major European power–politically, culturally, and geographically.
The Russia army was both enlarged and made into a professional unit by Peter the Great. Peter had a very clear idea about the direction of his foreign policy and he needed a strong army to execute this. Peter the Great took the bets parts of both systems and introduced a standing army in 1699. All soldiers received similar training so that the army had uniformity.
In the first quarter of the 18th century, Peter The Great raised women's rank in the government.