What Odysseus learned from the conversation he had with Elpenor is, " Don't leave me behind un-buried and unmourned. Burn me with all my armor. Do all this and put my own oar above the tomb." (Homer 67)
What Odysseus learned from the conversation he had with Tiresias is, " When you get to the island of Trinacria, you will find cattle of the sun at pasture. Don't touch them! if you let them alone, you may get back to Ithaca after some minor misfortunes." (Homer 68) What Tiresias is explaining to Odysseus is when you get to the island of Trinacria do not touch the live stock their or else Odysseus and his men will suffer the consequences.
What Odysseus learned from the conversation with his mother is, "Your wife," replied my mother, "has stayed faithful in your palace, She spends her days and nights in miserable anxiety. As yet no one has taken over your property." (Homer 69) Odysseus's mother is explaining that his wife and family is OK and nothing has happened to his property.
What Odysseus learned from the conversation he had with Agamemnon is, "Wise Odysseus," he replied, "Poseidon did not overcome me on the seas, nor did an enemy subdue me on land. My wife Clytemnestra, in league with Aegisthus, plotted against me and slew me at a feast." (Homer 72) Agamemnon told Odysseus that his wife and Aegisthus killed him at a fest. Which is why he is in the Land of the Dead.
What Odysseus learned from the conversation he had with Achilles is, " I have no news of your noble father Peleus, but I do have news about your dear son Neoptolemus. In fact, I brought him myself from Scyros to join the Greek army. I can say truthfully that he among the first to speak up in our counsels before taking of Troy. His advice was excellent. Only Nestor and I were able to surpass him in debating." (Homer 74)
What Odysseus learned from the conversation he had with a shade is, " Odysseus, son of Laetres, you're following an evil fate, just as I suffered when alive. Though my father was Zeus, I had many misfortunes and labors to perform. I was bond to a contemptible person, who gave me difficult jobs to do. Once He sent me here to Hades for the guardian watch dog, for he could not think of any labor more difficult. I did it, though. I brought the dog back to him." (Homer 76)