King Charles was hiding from Parliament after their most recent disagreement
Onward my loyal cavaliers. We shall take down that stuffy Parliament.
WHY DOES IT HAVE TO BE PUBLIC AND GRUESOME ? WHY COULD'NT YOU HAVE JUST POISONED ME?
I'LL FINALLY GET MY MILITARY DICTATORSHIP
Charles I disagreed with Parliament frequently. He believed in the Divine Right of Kings. This meant that he believed he got all the power he needed from God. Parliament wanted to have more say in the law.
Wasn't his name Charles?
So... Do you think we should just bring the monarchy back?
Didn't Charles have a son?
All that disagreement led to war. It was Cavaliers(those loyal to the king) versus the Roundheads(those loyal to Parliament). The king lost the war.
Why don't you come on in ?
Charles I not only lost the war, but later he lost his head. A man named Oliver Cromwell took over, set up a Commonwealth(similar to a Republic), and later on turned it into a military dictatorship.
After Cromwell's death, the monarchy was restored by the army. Charles II(Charles I's son) was made king. He tried to be better than his father by giving Parliament a proper amount of authority, and creating some better laws in his lifetime.
But then it was James II's(Charles I's other son) turn to rule. James was openly Catholic and Parliament didn't like that. So they invited Mary(James' daughter) and her husband, William of Orange, to invade and take over England.
William and Mary succeeded. They became king and queen of England. Later in their rule they created a set of rules, or a Bill of Rights. They abolished the theory of Divine Right of Kings.