When the Prophet Mohammad died, a new leader had to be decided upon.
Oh no! Who will be the next caliph?
I am Abu Bakr, Muhammad's trusted friend (and father in law!) If there are any among you who worshiped Muhammad, he is dead. But if it is God you worship, he lives forever. I shall be the first caliph.
Sir, have you heard? Multiple clans are abandoning Islam, some people are refusing to pay taxes, and there are even people claiming to be prophets! What should we do?!
We must reunite the Muslim community. Use military force if you must. Central Arabia must be under control, then we will try to conquest Iraq and Syria.
The Muslim Empire grew nearly four times in size by 661!
The first 4 caliphs Aka the ''rightly guided caliphs'' Aka the caliphate
Captured Syria, Iraq, and some of Persia
Abu Bakr died 634
Umar ruled until 644
Great leader, conqueror of many lands
Uthman Ruled until 656
Conqueror, editor of the Qur'an
Ali Ruled until 661
A just and fair ruler
1. Military victories seen as a sign of Allah's support so Muslims felt encouraged to spread their faith 2. Muslim armies were disciplined and highly skilled 3. Their enemies had been fighting for a long time already 4. The Qur'an does not allow for forced religious conversions, so persecuted people viewed Muslims as saviors
Reasons for success:
We also hold important roles in the Muslim state as officials and scholars! We are just not allowed to try to convert anyone to our religions.
My land was captured by Muslims. I liked the message of hope and equality so I converted to Islam!
So, how did you guys benefit from muslim rule?
I am Jewish and he is Christian. We are 'people of the book,' so as long as I paid a poll tax, we do not have to fight in the military!