The Sioux depended on buffalo, horses and open land. They used the skins to trade for food, knives and firearms. They also made teepees, fish hooks and food for the winter.
There must be gold!
After the Civil War, the people of the railroad started killing the buffalo to feed their employees. William Cody, Buffalo Bill, was hired to kill them Within three years, the whites had killed more than 9 million buffalo.
In the late 1860's, the U.S wanted to develop a policy towards peace with Native Americans. They started reservations, which are areas of land set aside for Natives. Some tribes did not want to leave their land and this started the Indian Wars.
The Sioux made a treaty with the U.S in 1868, but some groups continued to fight. The Sioux settled in the Black Hills that were rumoured to have gold. Custer led an expedition and confirmed the gold. Then later came back and was massacred.
The Nez Perce and Apache were both appointed to a reservation and rebelled. The Nez Perce fled to Canada, but were caught and they surrendered. The Apache went to Mexico, but continued to send raids to the states. The Apache surrendered in 1866.
The Sioux had a ritual called Ghost Dance. People thought Sitting Bull was the leader and he was shot and killed. This led to the Wounded Knee battle the ended the conflict.