King Charles I believed in Devine Right of Kings, which basically said that the King can do whatever he wants and he doesn't have to make decisions with anyone other than himself. Parliament tried to limit the King's powers and that created tentson between Monarchy and Parliament .
The Civil War was between supporters of the King (Cavaliers) and supporters of Parliament (Roundheads). Oliver Cromwell led Parliament to victory against King Charles I.
We're in England!!
Oliver Cromwell publically beheaded King Charles I. King Charles was the first monarch to be beheaded in public. Parliament abolished Monarchy and set up commonwealth.
Bill of Rights
After Cromwell's death, Charles II (son of King Charles I) is made King. Charles II learned not to threaten Parliament's authority or to believe that he was the only one with a say in what happens.
James II becomes King in 1685 after his brother's (Charles II) death. James II is openly Catholic and it worried Parliament. English nobles invited WIlliam of Orange and Mary of Orange (King James II's daughter) to invade and take over England. James II fled to France.
William of Orange and Mary of Orange accept the offer to the throne. The Bill of Rights is later created to end dispute between Monarchy and Parliament. The theory of Devine Right of Kings is destroyed.