"High overhead, Roger, with a sense of delirious abandonment, leaned all his weight on the lever." Roger represents evil. The fact that he killed Piggy with no remorse shows loss of innocence and authority.
In the beginning of the story, all the boys are civilized, and know right from wrong. However toward the end, they turn into savages that do not care for rules. Piggy says to them, "Which is better--to be a pack of painted Indians like you are, or to be sensible like Ralph is ?" They chose savagery.
"'I was choosing a place,'said Jack,'I was just waiting for a moment to decide where to stab him." In the beginning, as shown in the quote, the boys were still civilized and could not kill a pig. Later, like in the picture, they were slaughtering pigs with no problem. This shows savagery versus civilization.
The Conch Shell
Ralph says,"I'll give the conch to the next person to speak. He can hold it when he's speaking."The conch shell symbolizes civilization and order. The conch in the beginning shows organization. Later it is broken and chaos occurs.
The fire symbolized hope and ties to civilization. Ralph said, "We can help them find us. If a ship comes near the island they may not notice us. So we must make smoke on top of the mountain. We must make a fire." Later, Ralph lets the fire go out, showing that he lost hope, and everyone lost ties to civilization
Piggy's spectacles or glasses symbolize technology and innovation. It is used to light the wood to create a fire. in the book it says, "He was chief now in truth; and he made stabbing motions with his spear. From his left hand dangled Piggy's broken glasses. " Jack stole the glasses and the power to create the fire. This leaves Ralph and his tribe helpless.