Segregation was booming in the 1950s. The segregation of blacks and whites were keeping them from attending the same schools.
In a case called Plessy V. Ferguson, the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregation was constitutional in schools. They ruled this only if the separate facilities were equal.
However, some parents and students tried to challenge that case's decision, mainly because the facilities were not equal. Schools for black children often lacked gyms and cafeterias.
Their case was taken to the Supreme Court.
Brown and the parents argued that Plessy's decision violated the 14 amendment right. The fourth amendment right guarantees equal protection of laws.
The Supreme Court ruled that Plessy's decision violated the 14 amendment because segregation sends a message that children of color are inferior. Then, segregation in schools ended. We still follow the ruling of the court to this day.