There were many mountains in Greece making traveling in the land very hard. But Greece was in a Peninsula so Greeks were never far from water to travel.
Most Greeks made a living by farming. Some made steps on mountains to create more flat surfaces to farm. Farmers also raised livestock. Good farming land sometimes created wars because of the shortage of it.
As population increased there wasn't enough food to feed everybody. A solution was to start colonies in distant places. Colonists had to take long, hard voyages to find a good place to start the colony. The colonies helped a lot in the spread of Greek culture
Settlements on the mainland needed to trade with each other for needed goods. They traded with city-states, Greek colonies, and in the wider Mediterranean region.