Russian Modernization Part 3
Thank Christ it's over now.
Revolution erupted in the wake of the military's failure. The “Haves” and the “Have-Nots” stood at elbows in protests, joined by disgruntled ethnic minorities.
The most significant of these protests was arranged at the Winter Palace, where flocks and droves of people, helmed by the Orthodox Father Gapon, waited to deliver a petition to Tsar Nicholas II.
The event went down in history as the infamous “Bloody Sunday” when the military fired on the protesters, souring the Tsar’s reputation throughout Russia and beyond.
The revolution only grew after Bloody Sunday, reaching its zenith with a massive strike in October 1905. The Tsar was forced to institute the October Manifesto, which promised civil rights and a popularly-elected Duma, or parliament.
Just before the Duma’s first convention, however, the Tsar established the Fundamental Laws, which invested the Tsar with great power over the Duma. Tsar Nicholas II would go on to reduce the Duma into a mere puppet show of supposed “representation,” retaining his immense authority.
By 1914, Russia was well on its way to becoming a proper modernized industrial state. Three years later, however, what meager stability had persisted would collapse, the title of Tsar falling with it. ----------------- The End
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