In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry landed in Edo, Japan. He signed a treaty, to allow Japanese ports to American ships, guarantee safe harbour, and allow the US to build a permanent consulate in exchange for not bombing Edo.
In 1860, Shogunate leader Li Naosuke was assassinated outside Sakuradamon.
In 1866, Satsuma-Chōshū alliance was formed.
In 1867, Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu gave his power to the emperor, Emperor Meiji.
In 1868, the Boshin Civil War started.
In 1876, the banning of wearing swords and ending of their salary unsettled the samurai class.