About the same time, the Aztec emerged in Mesoamerica, the Inca began their conquest of western South America. In A.D. 1200 the Inca was one of many small states occupying the Urubamba valley, high in the Andes Mountains of present day peru.
By 1440, the Inca ruled the region. The Incas were gifted engineers and builders. They built an extensive network of roads that helped them transport people and goods. Bridges built of wood, stone, and even thick rope helped them cross rivers and deep canyons.
Thirsty distinct cultures lived in the Pacific Northwest region. This narrow strip of mountains and woodland followed the coast from present-day northern California to Alaska. It was one of the most densely populated parts of Noth America. The lakes, rivers, and ocean provided fish, shellfish, and whales. The forests offered plentiful plants and game.
As early as 1000 B.C., the ancient Pueblo began to farm in various parts of the arid Southwest desert. They Inhabited the Four Corners region, where present-day Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico come together. Little by little, they began to build villages with permanent structures on high plateaus or in canyons. Some Structure were made of stone and adobe.
East of Mississippi River, woodlands and prairies covered the lands that stretch between the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. between 1000 B.C. and A.D. 50, the Adena and then the Hopewell lived in this region. They are known as mound builders because they built huge mounds of earth. The mounds served religious, such as the great serpent mound built by the Adena in southern Ohio, formed the shape of animals.
The Great Plains is a wide area of flat, windswept grasslands that stretches north from present-day Texas into Canada. Early tribes settled along the regions major rivers and established permanent villages. To survive the bitter winters, some tribes built earth lodges out of soil and grasses to the house whole families. They relied mostly on hunting, gathering, and fishing because farming was not easy on the dry grasslands of the plains.