Jame's I was an absolute ruler over England. He made the laws and rules.
The English civil war started in 1642. The war was fought over governance between the royalist cavaliers that fought for the king, and the parliamentary Roundheads. Overall, parliament won and king Charles II was beheaded.
Parliament restores the monarchy and invites Charles II to rule. This starts the two political parties, the tories and the whigs.
In 1689, the English Bill of Rights was signed by William III and Mary II who became co-rulers after overthrowing James II. The bill gave constitutional rights to the people and ultimately gave Parliament power over the Monarchy.
Citations: Carrington, Laurel. Holt World History. the Human Journey. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2005. https://www.history.com/topics/ british-history/english-bill-of-rights