During the signing of the Magna Carta, King John, he was in charge of signing and it limited the monarchy's power.
English Civil War
The next ruler in line was James I and he favored absolute monarchy and believed in divine rights. During his rule there was tension in parliament between the Catholics and the Puritans.
After King James I died it was time for Charles I to rule, he also believed in divine rights and absolute monarchy. During the leadership of King Charles I, he was presented the petition of rights which says the king cannot tax without parliament. He dismissed the parliament because he claimed he didn't need them, in the end he ended up needing them.
During the 1700's & 1600's that time was called Revolutionary England. The people gained rights through the English Bill of Rights. When King Charles I and Parliament both wanted to command the army that's when the civil war started. During the civil war it was the Cavaliers vs the Roundheads, The cavaliers were the Royalists who supported the King and Roundheads were those who did not support the king.
A few years after the Civil war, the protectorate reigned when Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles I. He abolished the monarchy. He ruled for 5 years and tried to establish an republican government, which failed and people saw him as like a military dictator.
After Oliver Cromwell abolished the monarchy, there was a lot of work for Charles II to do to help restore the monarchy. Charles II was invited to rule by Parliament. During Charles II's rule people started to form political parties.