Mentor/Supernatural Aid: Athena was the mentor in the Odyssey because she guided Odysseus and Telemachus when they needed guidance. For example she told Telemachus to go to sparta when he didn't know where to go. For Odysseus Athena told him to take his army to troy.
Tests, Allies, and Enemies: An enemy/test that Odysseus has to go through is the cyclops and trying to escape his liar. Odysseus also meets Aeolus who wand to help him against posiedon
Belly of the Whale: A good example for this would be when Odysseus was all alone in the sea because of Scylla and Charybdis. They ate his companions and destroyed his ship.