# science

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• Roni just woke up and she is craving hard boiled eggs. She goes down to the kitchen to make some.
• Roni is boiling the water for here eggs. She notices that convection occurs when she boils her water. The heat passes from the burner into the pot which heats the water at the bottom. Roni also notices that it takes a long time for the water to boil because convection is not an efficient method of heat transfer. Roni thinks back to grade 7 science and remembers that during convection the heated particles move in circles up across down, causing them to bump into other particles causing them to transfer heat. This is called a convection current. Convection only occurrs in fluids (liquids and gases).
• After Roni finishes eating her eggs she wants some dessert. She decides to bake a cake. While her cake is baking she is planning to go on a walk to get some sunlight and fresh air. She puts on a black jacket and pants before going out.
• While Roni is on her walk, she is getting really hot. She realizes that her black clothes are absorbing the sun's UV rays. She remembers that this process is called absorption. This occurs because of the radiation that the sun is emitting. Radiation is the transfer of heat in waves without the need for particles. The sun's energy is called radiant energy. It occurs in all states of matter. Roni regrets wearing a black shirt instead of her white shirt, because she is very hot. If she would've worn her white shirt then reflection would've occurred instead of absorption.
• When Roni gets home she is about to take her cake out of the oven. Then she remembers that she used a metal pan to bake her cake. If cakes bake in metal pans, they are using conduction to bake. The oven heats up the metal pan, which then passes on the heat to the cake in a process called conduction. The heated particles in the metal pan collide with the cake particles and transfer heat. Metal is a heat conductor, and therefore it is able to heat up quickly and transfer heat quickly and efficiently. Conduction only occurs in solids. Because conduction is not as efficient as radiation, she leaves the cake in for another two minutes to ensure that it is fully baked.
• After two minutes have passed, Roni takes the cake out of the oven. She does not put on a n oven mitt and burns her hand. She then tries again with a oven mitts, and does not hurt herself. Roni realizes that the mitts are made out of cloth, which is an insulator. An insulator is a material that does not heat up quickly or transfer heat energy quickly and efficiently. Roni enjoys her cake and lives happily ever after.
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