After all if you're gonna study for that test, you will need the best Philosophes, or enlightened thinkers, on your side.
Who are some of the best philosophes of your time young enlightened thinker?
That's all you want? Then we can start in astronomy. We used to think that we were in a Geocentric system, or in other words, we thought the earth was the center of the universe. This is also known as the Ptolemaic System because it was discovered by The greatest astronomer of antiquity, Ptolemy, who lived in the AD 100's. That is, until Nicolaus Copernicus, who wrote the book "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres and also was a mathematician, came up with the Heliocentric, or Sun-Centered, system. In this system had the sun as the center of the universe. Then Johannes Kepler, a german mathematician, used math to support Copernicuses theory. This made Kepler's First Law, which stated that the orbits of planets were Elliptical, or egg-shaped, not circular. That's it I think... What are you doing?
THE EARTH IS THE CENTER!
NO IT ISN'T YOU CRAZY OLD COOT!
GIVE HIM THE CHAIR!
I don't know, maybe I couldn't find any of those characters, which is why they are all off-screen right now. UNLIKE...
Watching all of them fight. Way cooler by the way.
Why did I even tell you all that if you were not paying attention anyway?
Hi! I'm Issac Newton. This apple just fell, and I have an idea. What if the Universe had a force that made things fall?
That's a SWELL idea. You are a very smart young man! You should meet Galileo Galilei, he made the telescope. You would like him!
LIGHTNING ROUND TIME!
Maybe all planets do. How about you call it the universal law of gravitation?
The one on the left is Margaret Cavendish. She wrote multiple books that advance the idea that humans were the masters of nature. The one on the right is Maria Winkelmann. She is the astronomer who discovered a comet. Their work wasn't taken as seriously as men's work because they were women.
There are a ton more, but a few others I NEED to mention. Robert Boyle was one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments in chemistry. Francis Bacon was an English philosopher. he believed that scientists should not rely on the ideas of ancient authorities. he thought they should use inductive reasoning--proceeding from the particular to the general. This lead to the creation of the Scientific Method, a system used for collecting and analyzing evidence. Finally Rene Descartes, a French Philosopher, has become the father of modern Rationalism. Rationalism is a system of thought that's based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge.