In 711 the Muslims defeated the Visigoth king Roderic in the Battle of Guadalete.
In the mid-8th century, most members of the ruling Umayyad family in damascus were killed.
An Umayyad prince called Abd al-Rahman I, escaped to the iberian Peninsula. He founded the independent Emirate of Córdoba in 756. But he accepted the religious supremacy of the caliph.
In 929 Abd al-Rahman III created the Caliphate of Córdoba. Abd al-Rahman ruled through a chief minister (hajib), ministers (viziers) and provincial governors (walis). He streghtened the authority, Córdoba became a gian marketplace and was a great cultural centre.
In 976 Al Mansur takes the control of the Iberian Peninsula and conducted raids, or razzias, on Christian Territories in the north.
From 1031 to 1086 the taifas and the north african empires took control.