Due to the recent signing of the Magna Carta by King John of England, English rulers often sought the help of the Great Council for advice. This Great Council eventually developed into the Parliament, which then developed into a two-house system known as the House of Lords, which contained the nobles and high clergymen, and the House Of Commons, which included knights and the middle class.
Psst... Hey... Can we borrow your Christians to defeat the Turks?
The Crusades began when Byzantine emperor Alexius I hurriedly asked Pope Urban II to call for Christian knights to defeat the Turks. Despite the enmity between Roman popes and Byzantine emperors, Urban agreed. And so, at the Council of Clermont in 1095, the Crusades were created to take back the Holy Land.
I mean, we're basically sworn enemies, but... Eh, why not?
Despite having subsided from ravaging Europe, Asia, and North Africa, a strain of the bubonic plague survived in Mongolia by infecting fleas. These fleas traveled on rats to Asia and the Middle East, going as far as to infest a fleet of ships heading for Sicily, which would then spread to Europe.
What shall we do? If only we had a cure!
I don't feel so good...
Both the English and the French had victories in the Hundred Years' War due to new combat technologies. The English won the first string of victories with the longbow, which easily pierced through armor and could shoot multiple arrows at a time. However, the French regained their ground with the introduction of the cannon.
I shall vanquish thee with my longbow!
Some good your bows are now!
Cathedrals were constructed in the Middle Ages partly to show off wealth from trade and commerce, pride, and reflect Roman influences. While Romanesque cathedrals had thick walls and towers for support with little to no windows, Gothic churches had high, thinner walls with stone buttresses for support, allowing for space for large windows.
These large windows let so much light in! No wonder you can feel the presence of God in Gothic churches!
Joan of Arc, the daughter of a tenant farmer, became the renowned leader of the French troops during the Hundred Years' War. After a string of English victories, she went to the uncrowned French king and stated that she was sent by God to lead the French troops. In these desperate times, the king agreed, and by some miracle, Joan led the French troops to several victories. She was later captured by the English and burned at the stake; she was long after declared a saint.