Now, back to the article! These guys concluded “Antisocial personality disorder as an aetiological precursor of homicidal violence represents a serious health problem in contemporary Jamaica,” (Hickling & Walcott, 2013, p. 453)
Let’s grasp the 4 main points in the article! Quickly, 4 volunteers! Urania!
Key Point 1
Jamaica is developing in the economic, political and social arenas within the region, however crime, structural and interpersonal violence is also increasing such that Jamaica has the 3rd highest homicide rate in the world, (Hickling & Walcott, 2013, p. 456). Society has become extremely tolerant and accommodating of violence and its various forms. Violence is a huge mental health problem in Jamaica, leaving the control of intentional violence to the criminal justice system and war and group conflict are the domain of the psychiatrists, anthropologists and political scientists.
Key Point 2
The brutal plantation life and slavery legacy imposed by the British Colonial rule are the major contributors to the protracted violence experienced in the Caribbean. Hickling contends that violence originally manifested as rebellion against political, economic and racial exploitation, turned inward as tribalism and self-destruction, following the development of the Universal Adult Suffrage under the West Minister system of Parliamentary democracy in the 1940’s, (Hickling F. , 1994). There has been a systematic suppression of opportunities for the majority in the postcolonial plantation economies to maintain a large unskilled labour force, (Beckford, 1972). Violence in Jamaica has erupted in the urban inner-city garrison communities of Kingston, (Hickling & Walcott, 2013).
Key Point 3
Statistically there were significantly fewer antisocial personality disorders among the rurally reared men (RRM) in comparison to inner-city garrison urban reared men (URM), (Hickling & Walcott, 2013). Most convicted murderers displayed proof of early paternal rejection; revealing more conscious and unconscious anger in response to the rejection; while expressing blame and resentment at their father’s desertion. URM received beatings with belts and straps or more severe punishments to a greater extent than RRM. The physical punishment accentuated the aggressive drive in the URM, and a greater degree of resentful rebelliousness against authority figures, (Hickling & Walcott, 2013).
Key Point 4
Overall, the (Hickling & Walcott, 2013) study revealed rural/urban differences in areas of poor socio-economic background, psychosocial patterns of behaviour, delinquency and criminal records, characteristics of capital crime (method, weapon, victim), intelligence and patterns of personality disorders. The RRM committed murders due to poor emotional control towards situations in which a single known person who threatened their personal welfare, (Hickling & Walcott, 2013, p. 457). The URM however, were persons who, by virtue of their psychological background and experiences, are committed to acts and behaviour which take the form of rebellion and attacks against the establishment, (Hickling & Walcott, 2013, p. 457).
Ok great, now that we understand the article thoroughly. How are the issues discussed in the (Hickling & Walcott, 2013) article relevant to other Caribbean countries since those issues were discussed in a Jamaican context. Any volunteers?