Foods that are usually eaten with bread, to fill you up. You don't have to say a bracha before.
Foods that are usually eaten throughout the day, not only during a meal. It's not the way of people to establish a meal on those foods. Foods that are not used together with bread, or intended to be a meal and fill you up. Such as types of raw fruit.
Even if you're eating it at the end of a meal. Even though it's connected. because it's fruit and usually eaten during the day, you should say a bracha. Then don't say an individual bracha achrona.
There's a doubt if have cooked fruit during a meal, should you say a bracha before? Some say you should say a bracha before. The fact that it's cooked with the main dish, maybe it shouldn't require a bracha before because it's more part of the meal. For example, oranges cooked with chicken. The 1st opinion says you should say a bracha, 2nd opinion says you shouldn't say a bracha.
"Wow, This Avocado looks so good, let me taste a little. Oh, maybe I shouldn't, I don't know if I would say a bracha before. Since I am washing for the bread, it includes everything inside. I wouldn't have to say a separate bracha even if I ate the avocado by itself."
If there is a fruit basket on the table, and you know that you are eating that for dessert. Even though you already said the bracha of hamoetzei, and you have the intention to exempt it. It doesn't count, you still should say a bracha for the fruit.
The fruit in the basket looks so good! I'll have some for dessert when I'm done.
If after you said hamoetze, an unexpected gift was set to your house. You didn't rely on that to eat, so will not become exempted with the bracha on bread.
Wow! Someone sent me a gift! That's so nice. It looks like a sweet potato pie.