Abraham is the significant marker by God's revelations and promises. Abraham's son (Isaac), and grandson (Jacob) are referred as the patriachs of the Israel.
Moses was the leader before Abraham took over Him. Moses led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt and led them to the Holy Land that God had promised Him.
God appointed Saul to free the nation of the Philistines. Saul and his son with Israelite were about to fight the group of Philistines.
The Kingdoms were taken over by the Assyrian Empire. Then it was over taken by the Chaldeans. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed. Thousand of Jews were forced to leave their place.
Alexander the Great took over Israel and Judah. When Alexander the Great died, it was renamed palestine and was divided in two. Palestine was divided among 2 army generals in Syria and Egypt. The Jews were introduced to the Greek language and ways.
The Jews struggled to be free and lasted 100 years to get their independence back. Palestine was divided and a new country called Israel was created.