POS/ PSY

POS/ PSY
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  • Aristotle (384–322 BCE)- contributed knowledge on the value of morality, virtue and living a good life (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).
  • Christianity (500- 1500AD)- taught that in the afterlife, true happiness was found (UWI Open Campus, 2018a). 
  • Socrates (470- 399BC) & Plato (circa 428- 348 BC)- advancements that good outweighs evil (Parry, 2014).
  • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY -REIZA PATRICE
  • Renaissance (14th - 18th century)- During the time of enlightenment, persons like John Stuart Mill and colleagues posited that happiness was maximized by moral actions (UWI Open Campus, 2018a).
  • Norman vincent peale (1898- 1993)- advanced the power of positive thinking (UWI Open Campus, 2018a).
  • William james (1842- 1910)-  suggested that our emotions follow our physical actions and suggested the importance of combining positivist and phonological methodology (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011).
  • HISTORY OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Martin Seligman (1991- 2006)-  completed work on how helplessness and pessimistic attitudes garnered an interest in optimism and was elected President of the American Psychological Association when the theme of Positive Psychology became widely known (About Education, 2013).
  • Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi (1990)- established  the flow state and means through which that state could be achieved (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).  
  • Abraham Maslow (1908- 1970)- believed that humanistic psychology should be based on the study of healthy, creative individuals (UWI Open Campus, 2018). In fact, the term “positive psychology” was first coined by Maslow (Maslow, 1954).
  • HISTORY OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Donald Clifton (2002)- came up with Strengths-based psychology. He studied successful individuals and wanted to know what they did right to achieve top performance (Lopez, Pedrotti & snyder, 2015).
  • Edward Deci and Richard Ryan (2000)- developed the theory of human motivation known as Self Determination Theory (Srinivasan, 2015). 
  • HISTORY OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Emotions- they are “psychological states defined by subjective feelings but which also include characteristic patterns of physiological arousal, thoughts and behaviours” (UWI Open Campus, 2018b, p. 21). They are said to be more prolonged that the sensations of pleasure; have beginnings and endings and can lead to either negative or positive consequences (An, Ji, Marks & Zhang, 2017).
  • Pleasure describes “the broad class of mental states that is experienced as positive, enjoyable, satisfying, gratifying and thus worth seeking” (UWI Open Campus, 2018b, p. 17). It is an important component of happiness and can take various forms such as intense, arounsed and sharp (Peterson, 2006 as cited in UWI Open Campus, 2018b).
  • CONCEPTS RELATED TO PLEASURE AND POSITIVE EXPERIENCES
  • Affectivity- “the extent to which someone experiences positive or negative moods” (UWI Open Campus, 2018b, p. 23). There may be positive affect (the extent to which one experiences joy and happiness) or negative affect (the extent to which one experiences sadness or fear) (Peterson, 2006). 
  • Hedonic capacity refers to a dispositional ability to experience pleasure. This usually occurs after a rewarding stimuli ( in response to stimuli that are typically rewarding (Novacek, Gooding & Pflum, 2016).  
  • CONCEPTS RELATED TO PLEASURE AND POSITIVE EXPERIENCES
  • Christopher Peterson (2004)- was the co-author of Character Strengths and Virtues with Seligman and also known for his studies of optimism, hope, character, and well-being (Peterson & Seligman, 2004).
  • Flow- having been posited by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, refers to the idea the feeling of being in an optimal state, like “in the zone or in the groove”  (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). A person is fully immersed in what they are doing here.
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