Around 5000 years ago, the wheel was invented. Coaches drawn by horses were used. This increased the speed of travel from a mere 7-8 km/h to 20 km/h. Wheeled carts also meant heavier loads could be transported over long distances.
In search of land and resources, human beings felt the need to travel across the oceans. Canoe-like boats were not suitable for these journeys. The Egyptians were the first to build wooden boats that could sail across the ocean. The Vikings then, as we all know, made boats that used sails as well as 60 oarsmen who rowed the boat. Boats eventually evolved into ships with slim hulls and high masts. Then ships were filtered with propellers powered by steam. These were succeeded with diesel powered ships. Today these ships are used for the transportation of people and goods.
Railways were invented to transport large quantities of heavy goods. When the wheels roll in the grooves on a rail, they require less energy to run and also run faster due to less friction. Slowly people began to travel by rail as it was cheaper and sometimes even faster. The invention of the steam engine was a very useful addition to rail travel. James Watt created a steam engine that produces continuous rotative motion. This was applied to railway locomotives, where steam was produced by water and coal, fuelled the engine.
In 1886, a German inventor Karl Benz came up with the idea of motor run wagons. This made a wagon run faster and pulled a larger number of people, This event is often known as 'the birth of the modern automobile'. These wagons were mainly constructed for the transport of people rather than goods. In the 1900s, the first commercial motor car 'Model T Ford' was made is America. It was cheap because it had been mass produced. It could reach speeds of 64-72km/h.
Air Transportation began with Hot Air Balloons designed by Montgolfier brothers in 1783. Flights were limited as the balloon could only travel downwind. The modern airplane concept, as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate lift, propulsion and control, was only set forth in 1799 by Sir George Cayley. The first assisted take-off flight was on December 17th, 1903 by the Wright Brothers, who are known to be the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft. The invention and evolution of aircraft revolutionised war i n the modern era.